##### Short Problem Definition:

ou are given two integer arrays nums1 and nums2, sorted in non-decreasing order, and two integers m and n, representing the number of elements in nums1 and nums2 respectively.

Merge nums1 and nums2 into a single array sorted in non-decreasing order.

The final sorted array should not be returned by the function, but instead be stored inside the array nums1. To accommodate this, nums1 has a length of m + n, where the first m elements denote the elements that should be merged, and the last n elements are set to 0 and should be ignored. nums2 has a length of n. Write a function called merge in python.

##### Link

##### Complexity:

time complexity is `O(N+M)`

space complexity is `O(1)`

##### Execution:

I’ve seen the use of `sort`

in a lot of the solutions but that puts us at `O(nlogn)`

which we want to avoid.
We can’t start from the beginning because that would require moving things around in nums1.

This submission used less memory than most others.

##### Solution:

```
from typing import List
def merge(nums1: List[int], m: int, nums2: List[int], n: int):
idx1 = m-1
idx2 = n-1
for tail in range(m+n-1, -1, -1):
if idx1 < 0:
nums1[tail] = nums2[idx2]
idx2 -= 1
elif idx2 < 0:
nums1[tail] = nums1[idx1]
idx1 -= 1
elif nums1[idx1] >= nums2[idx2]:
nums1[tail] = nums1[idx1]
idx1 -= 1
else:
nums1[tail] = nums2[idx2]
idx2 -= 1
```

#### ChatGPT

ChatGPT can solve this problem correctly and efficiently:

```
def merge(nums1, m, nums2, n):
"""
Merges two sorted arrays nums1 and nums2 into one sorted array within nums1.
Parameters:
nums1 (List[int]): The first sorted array with a length of m + n.
m (int): The number of elements in nums1 that should be merged.
nums2 (List[int]): The second sorted array.
n (int): The number of elements in nums2.
"""
# Start from the end of nums1 and nums2
i = m - 1
j = n - 1
k = m + n - 1
# While there are still elements in both nums1 and nums2
while i >= 0 and j >= 0:
if nums1[i] > nums2[j]:
nums1[k] = nums1[i]
i -= 1
else:
nums1[k] = nums2[j]
j -= 1
k -= 1
# If there are still elements in nums2, copy them
while j >= 0:
nums1[k] = nums2[j]
j -= 1
k -= 1
# Example usage:
nums1 = [1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 0]
m = 3
nums2 = [2, 5, 6]
n = 3
merge(nums1, m, nums2, n)
print(nums1) # Output should be [1, 2, 2, 3, 5, 6]
```